Shi-Chune Yao

Professor, Mechanical Engineering

Shi-Chune Yao

Source: College of Engineering


5000 Forbes Avenue
Scaife Hall 311
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Phone: 412-268-2508

Fax: 412-268-3348




Professor Yao's research interests are mainly at multiphase flow and heat transfer. This is closely related to energy and thermal control industries. He works on both experimental and theoretical researches on subjects which are important to industries but are fundamental in nature. Some typical research areas are described below.

Professor Yao is active in the development of micro-scale energy systems using the MEMS technology. He models and develops micro-scale refrigeration systems on silicon chips and the two phase fluidics in micro-scale Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. As a member of the NextManufacturing Center, he also works on the thermal modeling of additive manufacturing of metal products, including the micro to macro scale.

Due to increased packaging density and clock speed, the heat fluxes of electronics are steadily increasing. Cooling of electronics with micro-channels and sprays are becoming inevitable solutions. Dr. Yao pioneered the spray cooling technology in 1989, and now the spray cooling is common on military electronics and in super-computers. Presently, our focus is on the use of micro-channel systems for the cooling of electronic chips.

Due to the large surface to volume ratio, droplets and sprays are used broadly in many critical processes in industries. Professor Yao’s research includes spray transport and deposition, impaction cooling in metallurgical processes, micro-sprays for cooling of electronic chips, and drop combustion and flame propagation in fuel sprays. 


B.S. 1968, National Tsing Hua University
M.S. 1971, Ph.D. 1974, University of California at Berkeley

Selected Publications

  • Xinran Zhao, Akshay Iyer, P. Promoppatum, Shi-chune Yao, “Numerical Modeling of Thermal Behavior and Residual Stress in the Direct Metal Laser Sintering Process of Titanium Alloy Products,” Journal of Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 14, pp.126-136, 2017.
  • Junjie Liu, G. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Shi, H. Zhang, and Shi-chune Yao, “Numerical Simulation of Surface Effects on Single Bubble Boiling Behavior,” Journal of Propulsion and Power Research, Vol. 6(2), pp 117-125, 2017
  • Matthew Swartz and Shi-chune Yao, “Experimental Study of Turbulent Natural-Convective Condensation on a Vertical wall with Smooth and Wavy Film Interface,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 113, pp. 943-960, 2017.
  • Patcharapit Promoppatum, Recep Onler, and Shi-chune Yao, “Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Micro and Macro Characteristics of Direct Metal Laser Sintered Ti-6Al-4V Products,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol. 240, pp. 262-273, 2017.
  • Patcharapit Promoppatum, Shi-chune Yao, Thomas Hultz, Dave Agee, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Cross-flow PCM Heat Exchanger for the Energy Saving of Building HVAC,” Journal of Energy and Building, Vol.138, pp. 468-478, 2017.
  • Nedim Sozbir, and Shi-chune Yao,”Spray Mist Cooling Heat Transfer in Glass Tempering Process,” Heat and Mass Transfer Journal, DOI 10.1007/s00231-016-1930-2, pp.1-13, Oct. 2016.
  • Dudong Feng, Shi-chune Yao, Tian Zhang, Qiming Zhang,”Modeling of a Smart Heat Pump Made of Laminated Thermoelectric and Electrocaloric Materials,” Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 138, paper 041004, pp.1-9, 2016.
  • Xinran Zhao, P. Promoppatum, and Shi-chune Yao, “Numerical Modeling of Non-Linear Thermal Stress in Direct Metal Laser Sintering Process of Titanium Alloy Products,” Thermal Fluid Engineering Summer Conference, August 2015, New York.
  • Yubai Li, and Shi-chune Yao, “Porous Media Modeling of Micro-channel Cooled Electronic Chips with Non-uniform Heating,” Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 29, No. 4 (2015), pp.695-704.
  • Shi-chune Yao, Dale Clifford, Pacharapit Promoppatum, “Use of Phase Change Material for the Energy Saving of Buildings,” Engineering Sustainability Conference 2015, Pittsburgh, PA. April 2015.
  • D. Guo, J. Gao, Y-J Yu, S. Santhanam, G. Fedder, A. McGaughey, and S.C. Yao, “Electrocaloric Measurement of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) Terpolymer by Infrared Imaging,” Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 105, 031906 (2014)
  • D. Guo, J. Gao, Y-J Yu, S. Santhanam, A. Slippey, G. Fedder, A. McGaughey, and S.C. Yao, “Design and Modeling of a Fluid-Based Micro-Scale Electrocaloric Refrigeration System,”  International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 72, pp. 559-564 (2014)
  • J.J. Liu, Hua Zhang, S.C. Yao, Yubai Li, “Porous Media Modeling of Two-Phase Microchannel Cooling of Electronic Chips with Non-uniform Power Distribution,” J. Electronic Packaging, Vol. 136, No. 2, paper No. EP-13-1129, 021008, 2014. 
  • Yubai Li, D. Guo, and Shi-chune Yao, “Thermal-Aware Microchannel Cooling of Multicore Processors: A Three-Stage Design Approach,” Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 136, 021002, 2014.
  • D. Guo, A. McGaughey, J. Gao, G. Fedder, M. Lee, S.C. Yao, “Multiphysics Modeling of a Micro-Scale Stirling Refrigeration System,” Int. Journal Thermal Science, Vol. 74, pp. 44-52, 2013.
  • D. Guo, J. Gao, A. McGaughey, M. Moran, S. Santhanam,G. Fedder, S.C. Yao, “Design and Evaluation of MEMS-based Stirling Cycle Micro-refrigeration System,” Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 135, pp 111003, 1-7, 2013.
  • H. Guo, X. Qian, X. Li, B. Craven, W. Zhu, A. Cheng, S.C. Yao, and Q.M. Zhang, “A Chip Scale Electrocaloric Effect Based Cooling Device,” Applied Physics Letter, Vol 102, 122904 (2013).
  • W. Li, H-X Li, G. Li, and S.C. Yao, “Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Composite Fouling in Corrugated Plate Heat Exchangers,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 63, pp.351-360 (2013).
  • H.J. Lee and S.C. Yao, “Network Analysis of Non-Uniformly Heated Evaporative Micro-channel Systems,” International Journal of Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 33, Issue 10, 2012, pp. 835-844.
  • G. Li, Z. Wu, W. Li, Z. Wang, H. Li, and S.C. Yao, “Experimental Investigation of Condensation in Micro-fin Tubes of Different Geometries,” Journal of Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 37, 2012, pp. 19-28.
  • H.J. Lee and S.C. Yao, “Flow Instability of Evaporative Micro-channels,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 53, 2010, pp. 1740–1749.
  • H.J. Lee and S.C. Yao, “System Instability of Evaporative Micro-channels,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 53, 2010, pp. 1731–1739.
  • G.B. Zhou and S.C. Yao, “Effect of Surface Roughness on the Pressure Drop of Liquid Flow in Micro-channels,” Journal of Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 31, 2010, pp. 228-234.
  • H.J. Lee, D. Liu, S.C. Yao, and A. Alyousef, “Generalized Two-phase Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer Correlations in Evaporative Micro-channels,” Trans. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 132, 041004 – 1 to 9, April 2010.
  • N. Sozbir, C. Yigit, R.J. Issa, S. C. Yao, H.R. Guven, S. Ozcelebi, “Multiphase Spray Cooing of Steel Plates near the Leidenfrost temperature – Experimental Studies and Numerical Modeling,” Journal of Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 20, No.5, 2010, pp.387-405.
  • H. Al-Ahmadi and S.C. Yao, “Spray Cooling of High Temperature Metals Using High Mass Flux Industrial Nozzles," Journal of Experimental Heat Transfer, Vol. 21, pp. 38-54, 2008.
  • J.M. LeCorre and S.C. Yao, “Two-phase Flow Regimes and Mechanisms of Critical Heat Flux Under Subcooled Flow Boiling Conditions,” Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 240, pp. 245–251, 2010.
  • J.M. LeCorre and S.C. Yao, “A Mechanistic Model of Critical Heat Flux Under Subcooled Flow Boiling Conditions for Application to One- and Three-dimensional Computer Codes,” Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 240, pp. 235–244, 2010.
  • Y. Alyousef and S.C. Yao, "Development of a Silicon-based Wettability Controlled Membrane for Microscale Direct Methanol Fuel Cells," Journal of Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp 337-344, 2006
  • S.C. Yao, X. Tang, C.C. Hsieh, Y. Alyousef, M. Vladimer, G. Fedder, and C. Amon, “Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS)-based Micro-scale Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Development," ASME Journal of Energy, Vol. 31, pp. 636–649, 2006.
  • C. C. Hsieh and S.C. Yao,"Evaporative Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Water Spray on Micro-structured Silicon Surfaces," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, pp 962-974, 2006.
  • C. Amon, S.C. Yao, C.F. Wu, and C.C. Hsieh, “Microelectromechanical System-based Evaporative Thermal Management of High Heat Flux Electronics,” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 127, pp. 66–75, 2005.
  • R. Issa and S.C. Yao, "A Numerical Model for Spray-wall Impactions and Heat Transfer at Atmospheric Conditions," Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 19, No.4, pp441-447, 2005.
  • R. Issa and S.C. Yao, "A Numerical Model for Spray-wall Impactions and Heat Transfer for Non-atmospheric Applications," Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 127, pp 631-639, 2005.